IYRU Rules

This is for educational purposes only (buy your own copy of the rule book). No warranties.

This text was posted to rec.boats.racing by fishmeal@netcom.com (Paul Kamen) and put into hypertext format by Fritz. Hypertext links for all the definitions were added by Luke Turnbull (lt@ohm.york.ac.uk). Please send suggestions for improvements (cartoons illustrating the rules would be cool, of course).

Click here to jump to Fundamental rules:
A. Rendering Assistance
B. Competitors' Responsibilities
C. Fair Sailing
D. Accepting Penalties
to the definitions:
Abandonment
Bearing Away
Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap
Close-hauled
Finishing
Gybing
Interested Party
Leeward and Windward
Luffing
Mark
Mast Abeam
Obstruction
On a Tack; Starboard Tack; Port Tack
Overlap
Parties to a Protest
Postponement
Proper Course
Protest
Protest Committee
Racing
Room
Rules
Sailing
Starting
Tacking
Windward
and to rules:
30 Hindering Another Yacht
31 Penalty Limitations
32 Serious Damage
33 Contact between Yachts Racing
34 Retention of Rights
35 Limitations on Altering Course
36 Opposite Tacks - Basic Rule
37 Same Tack - Basic Rules
38 Same Tack - Before Clearing the Starting Line
39 Same Tack - After Clearing the Starting Line
40 Other Limitations on a Leeward Yacht
41 Changing Tacks - Tacking and Gybing
42 Rounding or Passing Marks and Obstructions
43 Close-hauled, Hailing for Room to Tack at Obstructions
44 On the Course Side of the Starting Line
45 Keeping Clear after Touching a Mark
46 Person Overboard; Yacht Anchored, Aground or Capsized
51 Sailing the Course
52 Touching a Mark
53 Anchoring, Making Fast and Hauling Out
54 Propulsion
55 Aground or Foul of an Obstruction
56 Manual and Stored Power
57 Boarding
58 Leaving, Crew Overboard
59 Outside Assistance
60 Personal Buoyancy
61 Clothing and Equipment
62 Increasing Stability
63 Skin Friction
64 Setting and Sheeting Sails
65 Fog Signals and Lights
66 Flags.

PART I - FUNDAMENTAL RULES, DEFINITIONS AND ALTERATIONS

Fundamental Rules

A. Rendering Assistance

Every yacht shall render all possible assistance to any vessel or person in peril, when in a position to do so.

B. Competitors' Responsibilities

It shall be the sole responsibility of each yacht to decide whether or not to
start or to continue to race . By participating in a race conducted under these rules, each competitor and yacht owner agrees:
(i) to be governed by the rules :
(ii) to accept the penalties imposed and other action taken in accordance with the rules , subject to the appeal and review procedures provided in them, as the final determination of any matter arising under the rules ; and
(iii) with respect to such a determination, not to resort to any court or tribunal not provided by the rules .

C. Fair Sailing

A yacht, her owner and crew shall compete only by
sailing , using their speed and skill, and, except in team racing, by individual effort, in compliance with the rules and in accordance with recognized principles of fair play and sportsmanship. A yacht may be penalized under this rule only in the case of a clear- cut violation of the above principles and only when no other rule applies, except rule 75.

D. Accepting Penalties

A yacht that realizes she has infringed a
rule while racing shall either retire promptly or accept an alternative penalty when so prescribed in the sailing instructions.

Definitions

When a term is used in its defined sense, it is printed in italic type.
Abandonment
An abandoned race is one that is declared void at any time and that may be re-sailed.

Bearing Away
Altering course away from the wind until a yacht begins to gybe .

Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap
A yacht is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment in normal position are abaft an imaginary line projected abeam from the aftermost point of the other's hull and equipment in normal position. The other yacht is clear ahead.

The yachts overlap when neither is clear astern, or when, although one is clear astern, an intervening yacht overlaps both of them.

The terms clear astern, clear ahead and overlap apply to yachts on opposite tacks only when they are subject to rule 42. For the purposes of rules 39.1, 39.2, and 40 only: an overlap does not exist unless the yachts are clearly within two overall lengths of the longer yacht, and an overlap that exists when the leeward yacht starts , or when one or both yachts completes a tack or a gybe , shall be regarded as beginning then.

Close-hauled
A yacht is close-hauled when sailing by the wind as close as she can lie with advantage in working to windward.

Finishing
A yacht finishes when any part of her hull, or of her crew or equipment in normal position, crosses the finishing line in the direction of the course from the last mark , after fulfilling any penalty obligations under rule 52.2(b).

Gybing
A yachts begins to gybe at the moment when, with the wind aft, the foot of her mainsail crosses her centre line, and completes the gybe when the mainsail has filled on the other tack .

Interested Party
Anyone who stands to gain or lose as a result of a decision of a protest committee or who has a close personal interest in the result.

Leeward and Windward
The leeward side of a yacht is that on which she is, or, when head to wind, was, carrying her mainsail. The opposite side is the windward side. When neither of two yachts on the same tack is clear astern , the one on the leeward side of the other is the leeward yacht. The other is the windward yacht.

Luffing
Altering course towards the wind.

Mark
A mark is any object specified in the sailing instructions that a yacht must round or pass on a required side. Ground tackle and any object accidentally or temporarily attached to the mark are not part of it.

Mast Abeam
A windward yacht sailing no higher than a leeward yacht is mast abeam when her helmsman's line of sight abeam from his normal station is forward of the leeward yacht's mainmast.

A windward yacht sailing higher than a leeward yacht is mast abeam when her helmsman's line of sight abeam from his normal station would be, if she were sailing no higher, forward of the leeward yacht's mainmast.

Obstruction
An obstruction is any object, including a vessel under way, large enough to require a yacht, when more than one overall length away from it, to make a substantial alteration of course to pass on one side or the other, or any object that can be passed on one side only, including a buoy when the yacht in question cannot safely pass between it and the shoal or the object that it marks. The sailing instructions may prescribe that a specified area shall rank as an obstruction .

On a Tack; Starboard Tack; Port Tack
A yacht is on a tack except when she is tacking or gybing . A yacht is on the tack (starboard or port) corresponding to her windward side.

Overlap
See Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap

Parties to a Protest
(a) The protesting yacht, the protested yacht and any other yacht involved in the incident that might be penalized as a result of the protest ;
(b) a yacht that has requested redress;
(c) the race committee when it is involved in a protest under the rules 69(a) or 70; and
(d) a competitor who has been or is liable to be penalized.

Postponement
A postponed race is one that is not started at its scheduled time and that can be sailed at any time the race committee may decide.

Proper Course
A proper course is any course that a yacht might sail after the starting signal, in the absence of the other yacht or yachts affected, to finish as quickly as possible. There is no proper course before the starting signal.

Protest
An action taken by a yacht, race committee or protest committee to initiate a hearing on a possible infringement of a rule or a consideration of redress in accordance with rules 68, 69, or 70.

Protest Committee
The body appointed to hear and decide protests in accordance with rule 1.4.

Racing
A yacht is racing from her preparatory signal until she has either finished and cleared the finishing line and finishing marks or retired, or until the race has been postponed or abandoned, or a general recall has been signaled.

Room
Room is the space needed by a yacht to maneuver in a seamanlike manner in the prevailing conditions.

Rules
(a) These racing rules, including the definitions, preambles and the rules of an appendix when it applies;
(b) the prescriptions of the national authority concerned, when they apply;
(c) the sailing instructions;
(d) the class rules; and
(e) any other conditions governing the event.

Sailing
A yacht is sailing when using only the wind and water to increase, maintain or decrease her speed, with her crew adjusting the trim of sails and hull and performing other acts of seamanship.

Starting
A yacht starts when, after fulfilling her penalty obligations, if any, under rule 51.1(c), and after her starting signal, any part of her hull, crew of equipment first crosses the starting line in the directions of the course to the first mark .

Tacking
A yacht is tacking from the moment she is beyond head to wind until she has borne away to a close-hauled course.

Windward
See Leeward and Windward.

Alterations

A national authority may alter these rules by prescription, with the exception of the rules of Part I and IV, rules 1, 3.1, 16, 17, 18, rule 61 and 75, and the appendices of Group A, unless permitted in the rule or appendix itself. US SAILING prescriptions are printed in bold italics. The sailing instructions may alter a rule only in accordance with rule 3.1.

The appendices to these rules contain alternative or additional rules, guidance, or both. When the rules of an appendix apply, they override any conflicting racing rule.

PART IV - RIGHT OF WAY RULES

Rights and Obligations when Yachts Meet

The rules of Part IV apply to yachts that intend to
race , are racing or have been racing in the same or different races, from the time they begin to sail in the vicinity of the starting line until they leave the vicinity of the course after finishing or retiring, except when the sailing instructions prescribe that the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (IRPCAS) or applicable government right-of-way rules apply. All other vessels shall be treated in accordance with the IRPCAS orthe government right-of- way rules applicable to the area.

SECTION A - OBLIGATIONS AND PENALTIES

30 Hindering Another Yacht

Rule 30.1

Before or after she is racing , a yacht shall not seriously hinder a yacht that is racing .

Rule 30.2

Except when sailing a proper course , a yacht shall not interfere with a yacht that is exonerating herself in accordance with rule 52.2(a) or accepting a 720 degrees turns penalty in accordance with Appendix B1.

31 Penalty Limitations

A yacht shall not be penalized for infringing a rule of Part IV, other than rule 30.1, unless the infringement occurs while she is racing .

32 Serious Damage

When serious damage results from a collision, a yacht that had the opportunity but failed to make a reasonable attempt to avoid the collision shall be penalized.

33 Contact between Yachts Racing

When there is contact between yachts racing that is not both minor and unavoidable, the yachts shall be penalized unless:

(a) one of them lodges a valid protest ; or
(b) one of them, or a third yacht, retires (or exonerates herself by accepting an alternative penalty when so prescribed in the sailing instructions) in acknowledgment of an infringement in that incident.

34 Retention of Rights

A yacht that may have infringed a rule but that is not obviously retiring or exonerating herself retains her rights under the rules of Part IV, and other yachts shall treat her accordingly.

SECTION B - BASIC RIGHT-OF-WAY RULES AND THEIR LIMITATIONS

These rules apply except when overridden by a rule in Section C.

35 Limitations on Altering Course

When one yacht is required to keep clear of another, the right-of-way yacht shall not alter course so as to prevent the other yacht from keeping clear, or so as to obstruct her while she is keeping clear, except:

(a) when luffing as permitted by rule 39.2; or
(b) when assuming a proper course either:

(i) to start, when she is on the starboard tack and the other yacht is on the port tack ; or
(ii) when rounding a mark .

36 Opposite Tacks - Basic Rule

A port-tack yacht shall keep clear of a starboard-tack yacht.

37 Same Tack - Basic Rules

Rule 37.1 OVERLAPPED

A windward yacht shall keep clear of a leeward yacht .

Rule 37.2 NOT OVERLAPPED

A yacht clear astern shall keep clear of a yacht clear ahead.

Rule 37.3 ESTABLISHING AN OVERLAP

A yacht that establishes an overlap to leeward from clear astern shall initially allow the windward yacht ample room and opportunity to keep clear.

38 Same Tack - Before Clearing the Starting Line

Rule 38.1 SAILING ABOVE A CLOSE-HAULED COURSE

Before she starts and clears the starting line, a leeward yacht shall not sail above her close-hauled course when the windward yacht is mast abeam and would have to alter course to keep clear.

38.2 LUFFING

Before she starts and clears the starting line, when a leeward yacht or a yacht clear ahead luffs so that another yacht will have to alter course to keep clear, she shall luff only slowly, and initially in such a way as to give the windward yacht room and opportunity to keep clear.

39 Same Tack - After Clearing the Starting Line

Rule 39.1 SAILING ABOVE A PROPER COURSE

After starting and clearing the starting line, when a windward yacht has been mast abeam at any time during the overlap , the leeward yacht shall not sail above her proper course unless she luffs and tacks without interfering with the windward yacht.

Rule 39.2 LUFFING

After starting and clearing the starting line, subject to rule 32, a yacht clear ahead or a leeward yacht may luff as she pleases unless the windward yacht has been mast abeam at any time during the overlap .

Rule 39.3 SAILING BELOW A PROPER COURSE

A yacht on a free leg of the course shall not sail below her proper course when she is within three of her overall lengths of a leeward yacht or of a yacht clear astern that is steering a course to leeward of her, unless she bears away and gybes onto another proper course without interfering with the other yacht.

40 Other Limitations on a Leeward Yacht

Rule 40.1 DOUBT ABOUT MAST ABEAM

When there is doubt that a windward yacht is mast abeam and her helmsman hails 'Mast Abeam' or words to that effect, the leeward yacht shall promptly comply with rule 38.1 or rule 39.1. When she believes the hail is improper, her only remedy is to protest.

Rule 40.2 SAFETY LIMITATION

When a windward yacht hails that an obstruction , a third yacht or other object limits her ability to keep clear when a leeward yacht luffs , the leeward yacht shall give the windward yacht room to pass the object.

Rule 40.3 LUFFING TWO OR MORE YACHTS

A leeward yacht shall not luff unless she has the right to luff all yachts that would be affected, in which case they all shall respond, including any intervening yacht that does not otherwise have the right to luff .

41 Changing Tacks - Tacking and Gybing

Rule 41.1 BASIC RULE

A yacht that is either tacking or gybing shall keep clear of a yacht on a tack.

Rule 41.2 TRANSITIONAL

A yacht shall neither tack nor gybe into a position that will give her right of way unless she does so far enough from a yacht on a tack to enable that yacht to keep clear without having to begin to alter her course until after the tack or gybe has been completed.

Rule 41.3 ONUS

A yacht that tacks or gybes has the onus of satisfying the protest committee that she completed her tack or gybe in accordance with rule 41.2.

Rule 41.4 TACKING OR GYBING AT THE SAME TIME

When two yachts are both tacking or both gybing at the same time, the one on the other's port side shall keep clear. When one yacht is tacking and another is gybing at the same time, the one that is tacking shall keep clear.

SECTION C - RULES THAT APPLY AT MARKS AND OBSTRUCTIONS AND OTHER EXCEPTIONS TO THE RULES OF SECTION B

When a rule of this section conflicts with a rule of Section B, it overrides the conflicting part of that rule, except that rule 35 always applies.

42 Rounding or Passing Marks and Obstructions

Rule 42 applies when yachts are about to round or pass a mark on the same required side or an obstruction on the same side, except that it shall not apply:

(a) at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water (including such a mark that is also an obstruction ) when approaching the starting line to start until clearing the starting marks. However, after her starting signal, a leeward yacht shall not deprive a windward yacht of room at such a mark by sailing either:

(i) to windward of the compass bearing of the course to the next mark ; or
(ii) above close-hauled .
(b) between two yachts on opposite tacks:
(i) when they are on a beat; or
(ii) when one, but not both, of them will have to tack either to round or pass the mark or to avoid the obstruction.

Rule 42.1 WHEN OVERLAPPED

An Outside Yacht

(a) Except as provided in
rule 42.3, an outside yacht shall give each inside overlapping yacht room to round or pass the mark or obstruction , including room to tack or gybe when either is an integral part of the rounding or passing manoeuvre.

(b) An outside yacht overlapped when she comes within two of her overall lengths of a mark or obstruction shall give room as required, even though the overlap may thereafter be broken.

(c) An outside yacht that claims to have broken an overlap has the onus of satisfying the protest committee that she became clear ahead when she was more than two of her overall lengths from the mark or obstruction .

An Inside Yacht

(d) A yacht that claims an inside overlap has the onus of satisfying the protest committee that she established the overlap in accordance with rule 42.3

(e) When an inside yacht of two or more overlapped yachts, either on opposite tacks or one the same tack without luffing rights, will have to gybe in order most directly to assume a proper course to the next mark , she shall gybe at the first reasonable opportunity.

Rule 42.2 WHEN NOT OVERLAPPED

(a) When a yacht clear ahead comes within two of her overall lengths of a mark or obstruction , a yacht clear astern shall keep clear until the yachts complete the rounding or passing maneuver, provided the yacht clear ahead remains on the same tack or gybes . A yacht clear ahead is not required to give room to a yacht clear astern before an overlap is established.

(b) A yacht clear ahead that tacks to round a mark is subject to rule 41, but a yacht clear astern shall not luff above close-hauled so as to prevent her from tacking .

Rule 42.3 LIMITATIONS

(a) Limitations on Establishing an Overlap

A yacht that establishes an inside overlap is entitled to room under rule 42.1(a) only when, at that time, the outside yacht:

(i) is able to give room ; and
(ii) when the overlap is established from clear astern, is more than two of her overall lengths from the mark or obstruction .
However, when a yacht completes a tack within two of her overall lengths of a mark or obstruction , she shall give room as required by rule 42.1(a) to a yacht that, by luffing , cannot thereafter avoid establishing a late inside overlap .

(b) Limitation When an Obstruction in a Continuing One

When yachts are passing a continuing obstruction , such as a shoal or the shore or another vessel, rule 42.3(a)(ii) does not apply, and a yacht clear astern may establish an overlap between a yacht clear ahead and the obstruction , provided, at that time, there is room for her to pass between them in safety.

43 Close-hauled, Hailing for Room to Tack at Obstructions

Rule 43.1 HAILING

When two yachts are on the same tack and the yacht clear ahead or the leeward yacht is close-hauled , and safe pilotage requires her to make a substantial alteration of course to clear an obstruction , and when she intends to tack , but cannot tack without colliding with the other yacht, she shall hail the other yacht for room to tack and clear the other yacht, but she shall not hail and tack simultaneously.

Rule 43.2 RESPONDING

The hailed yacht at the earliest possible moment after the hail shall either:

(a) tack , in which case the hailing yacht shall begin to tack as soon as she is able to tack and clear the other yacht; or

(b) reply 'You tack' or words to that effect, in which case:

(i) the hailing yacht shall immediately tack and
(ii) the hailed yacht shall give the hailing yacht room to tack and clear her.
(iii) the onus of satisfying the protest committee that she gave sufficient room shall lie on the hailed yacht that replied 'You tack'.

Rule 43.3 WHEN AN OBSTRUCTION IS ALSO A MARK

(a) When an obstruction is a starting mark surrounded by navigable water, or the ground tackle of such a mark , and when approaching the starting line to start and after starting , the yacht clear ahead or the leeward yacht shall not be entitled to room to tack .

(b) At other obstructions that are marks , when the hailed yacht can fetch the obstruction , the hailing yacht shall not be entitled to room to tack and clear the hailed yacht, and the hailed yacht shall immediately so inform the hailing yacht. When the hailed yacht then fails to fetch, she shall retire or accept an alternative penalty when so prescribed in the sailing instructions.

44 On the Course Side of the Starting Line

After her starting signal, a yacht that has not started and is sailing toward the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions shall, until wholly on its pre-start side, keep clear of yachts that have started or are on the pre-start side. She shall then give any newly obligated yacht ample room and opportunity to keep clear.

45 Keeping Clear after Touching a Mark

A yacht that has touched a mark and is exonerating herself shall keep clear of all other yachts until she has completed her exoneration and, when she has started , is on a proper course to the next mark .

46 Person Overboard; Yacht Anchored, Aground or Capsized

Rule 46.1

A yacht under way shall keep clear of another yacht racing that:

(a) is maneuvering or hailing for the purpose of rescuing a person overboard; or

(b) is anchored, aground or capsized.

Rule 46.2

A yacht shall not be penalized when she is unable to avoid fouling a yacht that she is attempting to assist or that goes aground or is capsized.

Rule 46.3

A yacht is capsized from the time her masthead is in the water until her masthead is clear of the water and she has steerage way.

Rule 46.4

A yacht anchored or aground shall indicate the fact to any yacht that may be in danger of fouling her. Under normal conditions, a hail is sufficient indication. Of two yachts anchored, the one that anchored later shall keep clear, except that a yacht dragging shall keep clear of one that is not.
(Number 47, 48, 49 and 50 are spare numbers)

PART V - OTHER SAILING RULES

Obligations in Handling a Yacht

A yacht is subject to the rules of Part V only while she is
racing .

51 Sailing the Course

Rule 51.1

(a) A yacht shall start and finish only as prescribed in the starting and finishing definitions.

(b) When any part of a yacht's hull, crew or equipment is on the course side of the starting line or its extensions at her starting signal, she shall thereafter start in accordance with the definition.

"Round-the-Ends" Rule

(c) When Code flag 'I' has been displayed, and when any part-of a yacht's hull, crew or equipment is on the course side of the starting line or its extensions during the minute before her starting signal, she shall sail to the pre-start side of the line across one of its extensions and start .

(d) Failure of a yacht to see or hear her recall signal shall not relieve her of her obligation to start correctly.

Rule 51.2

A yacht shall sail the course so as to round or pass each mark on the required side in correct sequence, and so that a string representing her wake, from the time she starts until she finishes , would, when drawn taut, lie on the required side of each mark , touching each rounding mark . When she fails to do so, she may correct her error before she finishes by making her course conform to this rule.

Rule 51.3

A mark has a required side for a yacht as long as she is on a leg that it begins, bounds or ends, except that a starting mark begins to have a required side when she is approaching the starting line from its pre- start side to start, and a finishing mark ceases to have a required side when she finishes .

Rule 51.4

It is not necessary for a yacht to cross the finishing line completely; after finishing , she may clear it in either direction.

Rule 51.5

US SAILING prescribes that, in the absence of the race committee, a yacht shall take her own finishing time and report it to the race committee as soon as possible. If there is no longer an established finishing line, it shall be a line extending from the required side of the finishing mark at right angles to the course from the last mark and of the shortest practicable length.

52 Touching a Mark

Rule 52.1

A yacht shall neither:
(a) touch:

(i) a starting mark before starting; or
(ii) a mark that begins, bounds or ends the leg of the course on which she is sailing ; or
(iii) a finishing mark after finishing and before clearing the finishing line and marks ; nor
(b) cause a mark or mark vessel to shift to avoid being touched.

Rule 52.2

(a) When a yacht infringes rule 52.1, she may exonerate herself by, as soon as possible, sailing well clear of all other yachts and, while remaining clear, immediately making one complete 360 degrees turn including one tack and one gybe.

(b) When a yacht touches a finishing mark , she shall not be recorded as having finished until she completes her turn and returns wholly to the course side of the line, and then finishes .

Rule 52.3

When a yacht is wrongfully compelled by another yacht to infringe rule 52.1, she shall be exonerated:

(a) by the retirement of the other yacht (or by the other yacht accepting an alternative penalty when so prescribed in the sailing instructions) in acknowledgment of the infringement; or

(b) in accordance with rule 74.4(a)(ii) after lodging a valid protest .

53 Anchoring, Making Fast and Hauling Out

Rule 53.1 LIMITATIONS ON MAKING FAST AND HAULING OUT

When racing , a yacht may anchor, but shall neither make fast or be made fast by means other than anchoring, nor be hauled out, except for the purpose of rule 55, or to effect repairs, reef sails or bail out.

Rule 53.2 MEANS OF ANCHORING

Means of anchoring may include the crew standing on the bottom or any weight lowered to the bottom. A yacht shall recover any anchor or weight used before continuing in the race, unless, after making every effort, she fails to do so. In this case she shall report the circumstances to the race committee, which shall penalize her when it considers the loss due either to inadequate gear or to insufficient effort to recover it.

54 Propulsion

Rule 54.1 BASIC RULE

Except when permitted by rule 54.3, a yacht shall compete only by sailing , and her crew shall not otherwise move their bodies to propel the yacht. Fundamental Rule A and rule 55 override rule 54.

Rule 54.2 PROHIBITED ACTIONS

Without limiting the application of rule 54.1, these actions are prohibited:

(a) pumping: repeated fanning of any sail either by trimming and releasing the sail or by vertical or athwartships body movement;

(b) rocking: repeated rolling of the yacht, induced either by body movement or adjustment of the sails or centreboard, that does not facilitate steering;

(c) ooching: sudden forward body movement, stopped abruptly;

(d) sculling: repeated movement of the helm not necessary for steering;

(e) repeated tacks or gybes unrelated to changes in the wind or to tactical considerations.

Rule 54.3 EXCEPTIONS

(a) A yacht's crew may move their bodies to exaggerate the rolling that facilitates steering the yacht through a tack or a gybe, provided that, at the moment the tack or gybe is completed, the yacht's speed is not greater than it would have been in the absence of the tack or gybe.

(b) On a free leg of the course, when surfing (rapidly accelerating down the leeward side of a wave) or planing is possible, the yacht's crew may, in order to initiate surfing or planing, pump the sheet and the guy controlling any sail, but only once for each wave or gust of wind.

Rule 54.4 CLASS RULES

Class rules may alter rule 54.

55 Aground or Foul of an Obstruction

A yacht, after grounding or fouling another vessel or other object, is subject to rule 56 and may, in getting clear, use her own anchors, boats, ropes, spars and other gear; may send out an anchor in a boat; may be refloated by her crew going overboard either to stand on the bottom or to go ashore to push off; but may receive outside assistance only from the crew of the vessel fouled. When a yacht fails to recover all her own gear, she shall report the circumstances to the race committee, which shall penalize her when it considers the loss due to insufficient effort to recover it.

56 Manual and Stored Power

A yacht's standing rigging, running rigging, spars and movable hull appendages shall be adjusted and operated by manual power only, and no device shall be used for these operations that derives assistance from stored energy for doing work. A power winch or windlass may be used in weighing anchor or in getting clear after running aground or fouling any object, and a power pump may be used in an auxiliary yacht.

57 Boarding

Unless otherwise prescribed in the sailing instructions, no persons shall board a yacht, except for the purposes of Fundamental Rule A or to attend an injured or ill member of the crew or temporarily as one of the crew of a vessel fouled.

58 Leaving, Crew Overboard

Unless otherwise prescribed in the sailing instructions, no person on board a yacht when she begins racing shall leave, unless injured or ill, or for the purposes of Fundamental Rule A, except that any member of the crew may fall overboard or leave her to swim, stand on the bottom as a means of anchoring, haul her out ashore to effect repairs, reef sails or bail out, or to help her to get clear after grounding or fouling another vessel or object, provided that this person is back on board before the yacht continues in the race.

59 Outside Assistance

Except as permitted by Fundamental Rule A and rule 55 and rule 57, a yacht shall neither receive outside assistance nor use any gear other than that on board when her preparatory signal was made.

60 Personal Buoyancy

Rule 60.1

It shall be the individual responsibility of each competitor to wear adequate personal buoyancy when conditions warrant. A wet-suit is not adequate personal buoyancy.

Rule 60.2

Unless otherwise prescribed in the sailing instructions, when Code flag 'Y' is displayed before or with the warning signal, life-jackets or other adequate personal buoyancy shall be worn while racing by all competitors.

61 Clothing and Equipment

Rule 61.1

(a) Except as permitted by rule 61.2, a competitor shall not wear or carry clothing or equipment for the purpose of increasing his weight.

(b) Furthermore, the total weight of clothing and equipment worn or carried by a competitor shall not be capable of exceeding 15 kilograms when weighed as provided in Appendix A4, unless class rules or the sailing instructions prescribe a lesser or greater weight, in which case such weight shall apply, except that it shall not exceed 20 kilograms.

Rule 61.2

When so prescribed by the class rules, weight jackets of non-metallic material (excepting normal fasteners), with or without pockets, compartments or containers, shall be permitted, provided that the jacket:

(a) is permanently buoyant;

(b) does not extend more than 30 mm above the competitor's shoulders;

(c) is worn outside all other clothing and equipment; and

(d) can be removed by the competitor in less than ten seconds;

and that ballast carried in the pockets, compartments or containers shall only be water. For the purpose of rule 61.1(b), the pockets, compartments and containers shall be filled completely with water and included in the total weight.

Rule 61.3

When protested or selected for inspection, a competitor shall produce all containers referred to in rule 61.2 that were carried while racing .

Rule 61.4

Unless otherwise prescribed by the sailing instructions, rule 61.1(b) shall not apply in events for cruiser-racer type yachts required to be equipped with lifelines.

62 Increasing Stability

(a) Unless otherwise prescribed by the class rules, a yacht shall not use any device, such as a trapeze or plank, to project outboard the weight of any of the crew.

(b) When lifelines are required by the class rules or the sailing instructions, no crew member shall station any part of his torso outside them, except when it is necessary to perform a task, and then only temporarily. On yachts equipped with upper and lower lifelines of wire, a crew member sitting on the deck facing outboard with is waist inside the lower lifeline may have the upper part of his body outside the upper lifeline.

63 Skin Friction

A yacht:

(a) shall not eject or release from a container any substance (such as polymer); or

(b) unless otherwise prescribed by her class rules, shall not have specially textured hull or appendage surfaces;

the purpose of which is, or could be, to reduce the frictional resistance of her surface by altering the character of the flow of water inside the boundary layer.

64 Setting and Sheeting Sails

Rule 64.1 CHANGING SAILS

While changing headsails and spinnakers, a replacing sail may be fully set and trimmed before the sail it replaces is taken in, but only on mainsail and, except when changing, only one spinnaker shall be carried set.

Rule 64.2 SPINNAKER POLES AND WHISKER POLES

Only one spinnaker pole or whisker pole shall be used at a time and, when in use, shall be attached to the foremost mast.

Rule 64.3 USE OF OUTRIGGERS

(a) No sail shall be sheeted over or through an outrigger, except as permitted in rule 64.3(b). An outrigger is any fitting or other device so placed that it could exert outward pressure on a sheet or sail at a point from which, with the yacht upright, a vertical line would fall outside the hull or deck planking. For the purpose of this rule: bulwarks, rails and rubbing strakes are not part of the hull or deck planking. A boom of a boomed headsail that requires no adjustment when tacking is not an outrigger.

(b)

(i) Any sail may be sheeted to or led above a boom regularly used for a working sail and permanently attached to the mast from which the head of the working sail is set.
(ii) A headsail may be sheeted or attached at its clew to a spinnaker pole or whisker pole, provided that a spinnaker is not set.

Rule 64.4 HEADSAILS

The following distinction shall apply between spinnakers and headsails. A headsail is a sail in which the mid-girth, measured from the mid-points of the luff and leech, does not exceed 50% of the length of the foot, and in which any other intermediate girth does not exceed a value similarly proportional to its distance from the head of the sail. A sail tacked down abaft the foremost mast is not a headsail.

Rule 64.5 CLASS RULES

Class rules may alter rule 64.

65 Fog Signals and Lights

When safe pilotage requires, every yacht shall sound fog signals and exhibit lights as required by the international Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea or applicable government rules. US SAILING prescribes that the use of additional special purpose lights such as masthead, spreader and jib-luff lights shall not constitute grounds for protest.

66 Flags

US SAILING prescribes that flags shall not be displayed, except for signaling. A yacht shall not be penalized for infringing this rule without prior warning and opportunity to make corrections.

(Number 67 is a spare number.)

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